New York's Dental Laboratory Higher Education: How It All Began
Posted Sep 08, 2011 in Labs & Profiles
Part 1 Introduction
Not a month goes by where one or more dental technology publications write about the state of education or more precisely the decline or inadequacy of our educational system. Historically, dental laboratory technology education has been, for the most part, over-the-shoulder apprentice type of training. As we now know, the development of dentistry has evolved in a non-systematic path since before recorded history. Those who have been in the profession for over 30 years remember the "good old days" where education, training and development were kept secret and not readily shared with the younger technicians. Stories abound of the apprentices who made deliveries and cleaned the lab for years before being allowed to make a baseplate, polish dentures or invest a cast. Thankfully, these days are gone.
Over the last 100 years many dental technology training centers have come and gone. Unfortunately, most lacked the skills, funds, organization and pedagogical expertise to instill the education in their students that was needed to succeed in an ever changing profession.
As World War II came to an end in 1945, the world, education at all levels as well as dentistry had undergone monumental changes. As millions of soldiers returned home after the war ended, they were in the immediate need of training and education. To meet such challenges the State of New York created an institution known as the New York State Institute of Applied Arts and Sciences in 1946. From its humble beginnings with one building, six small departments and a dream, the first higher education program in dental laboratory technology in United States came into existence.
Since the inception, the problems associated with higher education dental laboratory technology programs were most often related to the fragmented, misunderstood, unorganized, and in many cases unsupported misconceptions about DLT training and education. A good example of such misconception happened a few years ago when Prof. Nicholas Manos, 17-year chairperson of the DLT program in NYCCT (1991-2008), was approached by a very prominent, successful and well-known prosthodontist from New York City who asked "Why are you not doing castings in the school?" to which he replied, "Before you make such statements, I think you should come down to the College and see for yourself what we are all about". After visiting the Department of Restorative Dentistry in NYCCT and learning that the two-year degree covers in detail all aspects of dental lab technology, the same prosthodontist became one of the greatest supporters of dental technology education on the local and national levels.
At one time, there were 60 DLT programs accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation, ADA. In 1976, New York City alone had five DLT programs, which were Kerpel, New York School of Mechanical Dentistry, Technodent, Magna, and New York City Technical College, all are now gone except NYCCT. Today only 19 accredited programs remain. The erosion of formal education has its roots in many areas ranging from financial difficulties, through poor student enrollment, to lack of competent faculty, to lack of support for the program within the institution and profession, among other reasons.
Besides formal education, there is always an informal educational component present in every profession. It should be noted that the prominent, dedicated clinicians that we meet at our local and national trade shows give lectures frequently to dental technicians who have chosen to elevate their skills through continuing education seminars. Those individuals make up but a small part of the 36,600 technicians in the United States. This number is also half of the profession's cohort just 20 years ago. Conversely, the DLT programs in the US are not training dental technicians; instead they are educating students from every walk of life who have chosen to become dental technologists.
There is a major difference between a successful dental technologist and the average lay person pursuing the dream. Just like there is a world of difference between training a student on how to perform a task of fabricating a given appliance as compared to educating a student in the technological concepts and instilling the didactic skills needed to comprehend the fabrication procedures as well as seemingly unrelated knowledge required to meet the needs of the patient and dentist clients. The foundation to create the overall well rounded professional comes from studies of communication, math, social sciences, chemistry, biology, physics, computer skills and the humanities which ultimately create the dental technologist and the leader of the future rather than the step worker sitting at the bench. Educating a student ignites the spark, which will instill the individual's life long learning and dedication to the profession in order to seek excellence in future endeavors.
The following paragraphs will identify the areas of educational successes and failures, groups of individuals, manufacturers, alumni, lab owners, other institutions of learning, traditional and non-traditional methods of teaching, as well as organized and systematic analysis of curriculum development. We will not discuss what is wrong with dental laboratory technology education because we have heard enough on that topic; instead we will talk about what is right with education, where we were, where we are, and where we need to go in the future.
Part II Origins of the College and Dental Technology Department
New York City College of Technology has undergone innumerable changes since its inception in 1946, as did the Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, today known as the Department of Restorative Dentistry.
The original name of New York State Institute of Applied Arts and Sciences (1946) ultimately evolved into New York City Community College (NYCCC) in 1953 when it became part of the City University of New York (CUNY), to New York City Technical College (NYCTC) in 1980, and finally to New York City College of Technology (NYCCT) in 2002. All these modifications represent the reflection of the changes in mission, goals, and in the institutional focus that took place during the 64-year time period. Today, our College is the sole College of Technology within The City University of New York and the largest public college of technology in the Northeast with enrollment reaching 15,000 students guided by 1,000 faculty members.
The Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, after a much-heated debate within the College and dental community, changed its name to the Department of Restorative Dentistry in 2005 to reflect major curriculum modifications and the ever-evolving role of dental technologists in the Restorative Dentistry team.
Currently, the Restorative Dentistry program is one of the smallest in our College but with a student body of 130 DLT students and 17 faculty and staff members it is the largest DLT program in the nation. Besides being the first DLT higher education program in the United States since its inception in 1946, we also became the first DLT program accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation, ADA in 1954, the first program to become a Certified Dental Lab (CDL) in 1995, the first to purchase and integrate CAD-CAM technology into the curriculum in 2004 starting with Nobel Biocare Piccolo system, followed by Nobel Biocare Forte system in 2006, then came Serona and Sensible Technologies CAD-CAM systems in 2008.
In 1951 members of the 3310 School Squadron United States Air Force completed the DLT program. For many years the Air Force received the training in NYCCT until new military facilities were constructed at Shepherd Air Force Base in Texas.
Part III Facts and Figures
- 265 labs in New York City (Registered STC Tax Code)
- 758 labs in New York State (Registered STC Tax Code)
- 177 labs in Massachusetts (Registered STC Tax Code)
- 207 labs in New Jersey and New Hampshire (Registered STC Tax Code)
- NBC: 6 CDL's in NY, 234 RG's & CDT's in New York State
- 36,600 Dental Technicians Nationwide
- It takes approximately 5 years for a novice dental technologist to reach a level of expertise.
Part IV Support Groups and Individuals
While attending national conferences we are regularly asked why so many schools have closed, why new ones have not opened, and why we don't have problems that are inherent in most of the remaining institutions. The authors would love to take credit for the DLT program's great successes, but in reality we need to give credit to the hundreds of individuals who have given their time, wealth and expertise to enrich and develop City Tech into what it is today.
The Department of Restorative Dentistry has formal and informal relationships with the community of dental organizations and would like to identify the groups and individuals, as well as the professional organizations that have consistently supported the program with advice, scholarships, donations and speakers. Those organizations are the Greater New York CDT Study Group, Northeastern Gnathological Society, American Society of Master Dental Technologists, Long Island Dental Laboratory Association, Greater New York Dental Meeting, National Association of Dental Laboratories, National Board for Certification in Dental Laboratory Technology, American Dental Association, publications like Lab Management Today, Inside Dental Technology, Spectrum, and numerous others.
Over the years, as the importance and value of knowledge along with keeping up with the newest trends became evident, the organizations like DLANY, LIDLA, LMT, GNYDM, ASMDT, and Oral Design Symposium invited our students numerous times to participate in their educational events. Similarly, publications like LMT and IDT are supporting higher learning with providing each and every student in our program with individual copies of their journals on monthly bases. The magazines' articles are then incorporated into the dental curriculum as oral and written assignments related to the latest developments.
Furthermore, the Department of Restorative Dentistry has developed a long time cooperation with a study group known as the Greater New York CDT Study Group formed by a group of lab owners in New York City in approximately 1935 that remained active for the past 75 years. The Greater New York CDT Study Group composed of lab owners, dental technicians, dentists, DLT students and faculty members meets in Brooklyn, NY at NYCCT four times a year. Current membership reaches approximately 130 members possibly making it the largest and the oldest active dental technology study group in the nation. The study group meetings serve multiple purposes of educating, socializing, and keeping up with newest trends in our profession. The interaction among members during the meetings also allow the DLT students to make contacts with industry experts in their first and second years of study.
The collaboration of the Department of Restorative Dentistry with the Northeastern Gnathological Society resulted in attendance of all second year students to NGS's Fall and Spring educational meetings and assisting our program with securing donations of equipment such as new porcelain furnaces. NGS members invite DLT students to their offices and laboratories during the summer externship program where DLT students are exposed to the actual laboratory and clinical environment. The NGS members also assisted our department with donations of impressions and models to use in our classrooms to stimulate real world cases.
There are many dental manufacturing and supply companies that stepped up to the plate when called upon to support the program with donations of equipment and/or educational support for faculty and students. Among such companies are Nobel Biocare, Dentsply, Jeneric Pentron, GC America, Valplast, Amman Girrbach, Vident, Bego USA, Ivoclar Vivadent, CMP Industries, Jensen Dental, SensAble Technologies, Laser Star, Bisco, Kerr, Heraus Kulzer, Henry Schein International, and Keystone Industries, just to name a few. The support from these companies have greatly enhanced the capabilities of the program and allowed our students to be ready for the challenges of tomorrow.
As everyone talks about the importance of education, which is the key to their ultimate success, the following individuals have come forward time and time again to share their time, expertise and funds to assist the department in educating, enriching and motivating the students and alumni of City Tech.
Among them are Dr. Burney Croll, NGS Officer and Education Liaison, Dr. Leonard Kobren, Dr. Daniel Budasoff, and Dr. Vincent Celenza, all past presidents of NGS who supported us as lecturers at the College, provided summer externship for DLT students in their dental offices, and welcomed students with open arms at NGS meetings. Mr. Peter Pizzi, Mr. Richard Pavlak and Mr. Leonard Marotta are all local lab owners well known as national and international clinicians, officers in prominent dental societies and as regular lecturers at our College. Mr. Vincent Alleluia, director of the American Society of Master Dental Technologists, regularly invites our students to observe ASMDT seminars at NYU. Mr. Norman Russell, NYCCT class of 76', was instrumental in securing the inclusion of two CAD systems in 2004 and 2006 into the College as well as donating large amounts of supplies and coordinating technical training for every student at Nobel's North America headquarters in Mahwah, New Jersey. Mr. Mickey Wolk of Vident who regularly lectures at the College, has also donated ceramic materials for student education and advised faculty on new trends in ceramic restorations.
Mr. Peter Nagy, President of Valplast has donated our flexible denture system as well as materials and training of all faculty.
Mr. Bill Yacola and Mr. Ernie Giancola of DENTSPLY International who supported us with equipment and supply donations and technical training.
Ms. Anna Babilonia of Pentron Ceramics, NYCCT class of 99', donated the Pentron pressable system, materials and training, which resulted in students receiving hands on and didactic education in pressables.
Mr. Lenny Ricci from CMP Industries has donated more RPD materials and education than we could possibly mention.
Mr. Thomas Degnan from GC America donated Gradia indirect composite system and supplies as well as trained the faculty and students in various GC products for many years.
Mr. Ralph Rega, lab owner of Creative Dental Technologies, invited DLT students on many occasions to visit his lab and participate in events scheduled for his dentists' clients.
Leonard Marotta who contributes his time, expertise and funds to educate students on the topic of implants.
Let's not forget about the DLT Advisory Commission composed of 24 dentists, dental laboratory owners, laboratory technicians, dental product manufacturing representatives, delegates from the local and state dental laboratory associations, DLT alumni and students who are actively involved with the direction and planning of the department, and inform us about industry trends at their annual meetings at the College. This group of individuals is quite possibly our greatest asset.
Individuals and groups such as those identified have been the driving force in our successes and advancements. There are people and groups like this across the country who are willing to assist their local programs. However, it is up to the DLT programs to develop similar relationships to enhance their program.
The City Tech Foundation, which raises funds to support student higher and continuing education, has also contributed on many occasions to provide DLT students with funds for trips and training in high tech areas such as CAD/CAM education at Nobel Biocare.
The final group that should not be overlooked is the 2,000 DLT alumni who have continuously supported the program with their donations of time, money, expertise and motivation to instill in past and present students a sense of their belonging and importance in the dental community.
Due to our central and widely accessible location in New York City, the dental groups and individuals mentioned here are in most part located in our surrounding area. However, the area within a one-hour radius from our College encompasses over 15,000 million people, 14,000 dentists, 1,200 dental laboratories but only one accredited DLT program.
Part V Faculty Involvement with Industry
The faculty involvement with the industry is directly proportionate to the industries commitment to the life of our program in the College. Over the years, faculty at City Tech have published articles in every major DLT publication, lectured at local, national and international conferences, held officer positions in local and national organizations, volunteered to be the members of the editorial review boards of dental publications, curriculum consultants and staff representatives to the Commission on Dental Accreditation, Advisory Board Members for High School DLT programs, NADL Foundation Board Members and CDT Exam writers and reviewers. Involvement of our faculty and staff members, volunteerism and attendance at conferences ultimately resulted in continued support and recognition of the program within the profession on local and national levels.
Part VI Mission, Goals, Objectives, Outcomes Assessment, Issues of Concern
Assessment studies are regularly conducted to determine if the department is meeting its stated goals. If needed, modifications are made to correct any deficiencies. The Commission On Dental Accreditation (CODA) standards are utilized to access students' comprehension of basic DLT knowledge.
NYCCT Mission Statement
New York City College of Technology is the designated college of technology of The City University of New York, currently offering both baccalaureate and associate degrees, as well as specialized certificates. New York City College of Technology serves the city and the state by providing technically proficient graduates in the technologies of the arts, business, communications, health and engineering; human services and law-related professions; technical and occupational education; and liberal arts and sciences. The College provides access to higher education for New York City's diverse population and assures high quality in its programs by a commitment to outcomes assessment. The College also serves the region by developing partnerships with government agencies, business, industry and the professions and by providing technical and other services. Education at New York City College of Technology provides students with both a command of skills necessary in their respective career areas, and the educational foundation for lifelong learning. All degree programs are built upon a liberal arts and science core curriculum designed to foster intellectual curiosity, an appreciation for the aesthetic dimension of life and work and a respect for cultural diversity. Students obtain practical experience in their chosen fields in a variety of settings. The College further encourages student growth and development through academic and student support services and a wide array of student activities.
NYCCT Education Goals
A City Tech graduate will:
- possess the ability to transfer knowledge and skills
- function well in a variety of work environments
- communicate clearly in written and oral presentation
- apply problem-solving techniques to the workplace
- work effectively as a member of a project team
A City Tech graduate will:
- understand the scientific and technical framework within which modern society functions
- achieve a high degree of information literacy, using information technology to seek, obtain and utilize information resources for self-learning, problem-solving and personal growth
- understand the aesthetic dimension of life
- understand the economic, societal and cultural aspects of the environment
- understand the ethical responsibilities and implications of one's work and personal actions
Department of Restorative Dentistry Mission Statement:
The Department of Restorative Dentistry is committed to the dental care delivery system by providing students with the necessary learning experience, knowledge, and skills to become ethical and competent dental technicians, who as part of the dental health team apply current scientific knowledge and skills in dental laboratory procedures. It meets the needs of the cities culturally diverse population for technical and career education with curricula that integrates liberal and technical education.
Department of Restorative Dentistry Goals:
- To comprehensively prepare students to competently work as technicians as a part of the dental health team.
- Provide students with situations that will relate to problem solving techniques as they relate to the profession.
- Prepare students to successfully pass the Recognized Graduate Exam.
- Provide students with acceptable procedures of Dental Laboratory asepsis and safety methods.
- Provide students with a liberal and technical foundation for lifelong learning and the opportunity to advance in their careers.
- Provide students learning experiences in current techniques and materials
A graduate of the program should be able to:
- Know generally accepted practices in the fabrication of dental appliances.
- Understand properties of materials used in the fabrication processes.
- Follow instructions from technical manuals.
- Troubleshoot errors occurring in the fabrication processes.
- Use correct dental and anatomical terminology used in restorative dentistry work.
- Apply knowledge of anatomical and physiological aspects to fabrication of appliances.
- Understand how to read and fulfill a dental prescription.
- Use effective communication skills.
- Know proper safety procedures as it pertains to laboratory materials and equipment.
- Exercise discretion and good judgment in all aspects of work.
- Prepare for Recognized Graduate exam in Dental Laboratory Technology.
- Perform all tasks required for Specialty Certification in Dental Laboratory Technology.
- Know infection control procedures as it pertains to Dental Laboratory Technology.
- Apply knowledge of mathematics in determining ratios and converting measurements.
- Read and analyze literature found in the dental field.
- Demonstrate an understanding and support of the profession's code of ethics and comply with the profession's scope of practice.
Part VII Basic and Advanced Techniques, General Education, Computer Literacy, Online/Hybrid Education, Guest Lecturers.
Every year at the Advisory Commission meeting in September we tackle with the concept of basic vs. advanced dental laboratory technology education. Do we develop the students with solid foundation in the basic concepts or do we concentrate on newly developed techniques and equipment? The DLT program is approximately 2 years in length consisting of 42 credits in DLT courses and 22 credits in core/liberal arts education. If one subject during one semester is taught in 15 hours of lectures and 90 hours of hands-on instructions in the lab, then the entire two years of teaching five subject areas of dental technology plus anatomical concepts, dental materials and business, account for approximately 1900 hours. If we add core and liberal arts studies the time spend in the College learning the material necessary to complete a two year degree in dental laboratory technology would add up to about 1950 hours. It is a thin line that we walk to meet the requirements of the university, the College, the dental profession and the students.
As an ADA accredited institution, our students must be educated and display competency in the 5 major areas of our profession, including crown and bridge, ceramics, dentures, partial dentures and orthodontics, in addition to completing courses in the traditional liberal arts and computer proficiency. Time is our biggest enemy. Four 15-week full time semesters provide the average time frame for student education in all areas. Additionally, higher learning experience is often enhanced and supplemented by evening speakers, local dental conferences, and summer externship placement in dentist's offices and/or dental laboratories.
In addition to traditional in-class held lectures and labs, our students are now gaining knowledge through distance learning including hybrid, in-class/online class, or fully online classes utilizing electronic blackboard, which is available 24 hours 7 days a week. The first fully online class, , was implemented in spring of 2010 by Professor Renata Budny in RESD 1212 Fixed Prosthodontics II lecture. Having the information available to our students at all times via internet eliminates the need of supplying endless notes, outlines, tests and simply wasting tons of paper and contributing to deforestation of our environment. Going Green seems to be the right thing to do nowadays and we want to contribute to that movement. Many classrooms and laboratories in the College are also considered smart classrooms since they are equipped with networked computes with instant internet access, camera/video visualizers, microscopes, speckfinders, DVD/VCR players, audio systems that are all connected to projection screens for easier viewing. The Department of Restorative Dentistry was also very fortunate for the last few years to acquire digital dental camera, laptop computers, video vizualizers, overhead projectors, and camcorders. All of these improvements made the delivery of instruction simpler, faster and more convenient for faculty and students alike.
Part VIII Students Accomplishments, Awards, Presentations, Recognition, Involvement
Student accomplishments beyond the required curriculum must be nurtured and encouraged. From the very first day at the College, our students are informed of the history of the Department and its dedication to serve the profession of dentistry. All DLT students are invited to local dental conferences free of charge including the Greater New York CDT Study Group's four annual meetings, Northeastern Gnathological Society spring and fall meetings, LMT East trade show, Greater New York Dental Meeting, MDT seminars and Ceramic Symposium at NYU, in addition to various manufacturer's training sessions and local laboratories sponsored events.
Furthermore, many of our students present their research projects at the City Tech Honors Scholars poster sessions and other City Tech conferences, as well as at the Greater New York Dental Meeting and NGS meetings. The written work of our students have been published annually for the past four years in the City Tech Writer, a prestigious publication featuring the best student writing from all 60 some disciplines within our College. Such recognition creates a sense of belonging and results in increase of dedication and commitment to ones education and profession. When a student is welcomed with open arms by a successful member of our profession, she/he starts to realize the caring and family-like atmosphere surrounding them. Numerous surveys have shown the number one reason for students dropping out from college is that no one seems to care about them. Therefore, being a small department has its advantages. The NYCCT Department of Restorative Dentistry currently holds one of the highest retention and graduation rates in our institution.
Part IX Communication, Publications, Department Website, Social Networking, Mailings, Knowing and Understanding DLT Market Needs, Global Issues, and Lifelong Learning
"After you have done a thing the same way for 2 years, look it over carefully. After 5 years, look at it with suspicion, and after 10 years, throw it away and start all over." (Alfred Pearlman, NY Times, 4/3/58)
One of the challenges of education is to stay current. It seems that by the time the student graduates from any college, many of the concepts learned are already antiquated. Let's face it; the two-year associate degree programs in United States are introductory programs. They instill basic concepts as well as a thorough understanding of dental anatomy. The most consistent criticism from the dental profession about the DLT program graduates is that they cannot produce. Well, of course they cannot produce at the level required right after the graduation! If most lab owners could look back when they entered the profession, they would remember that they could not produce either. Only time, repetition and experience will result in increased production. Programs such as ours build a foundation and motivation, which is the first step in a young technician's development. Upon graduation the student has vast theoretical knowledge in anatomy, chemistry, communication, computer proficiency and basic DLT procedures in five areas of specialty. From this point on, it is up to the lab supervisor to nurture and continue the growth process. Once the student/graduate has caught the bug for learning, it will stay with them forever. We plant the seed, the profession needs to water it, fertilize it and help it grow.
It is a well-known fact that the profession of dental laboratory technology is a relatively invisible profession. Even though, many local and national organizations, dental technicians and laboratories have attempted to bring change to public awareness regarding dental technology, not much has changed over time. It is unfortunate that the average person walking on the street if asked, what we do, could not properly identify it. In the educational arena we struggle with the same identity crises. Think, for example, of a college as a family unit. When the family's wealth needs to be divided among its children, there is only so much that can be given. When investing family funds, they are allocated to investments that bring the most return. Well, the same analogy can be applied to our institution. The departments that have the greatest assets such as highest success rates, the most dedicated faculty, presence in the college and extensive community involvement usually receive the greatest support. Prof. Nicholas Manos, a 30+ years educator and site evaluator for the Commission on Dental Accreditation, CODA, has observed numerous DLT educational institutions failing and closing because their faculty did not seem to take a major role in overall development and support of their own programs and institutions. Additionally, as enrollment decreased, the perception was that there was no longer a need for the program and its high costs.
It is critical that the program continuously reinvents itself and reinforces its position and importance within the institution. College administration perceptions and goals change with the times. If any program is to survive, it must establish itself as a major component of its institution. Such a program can be further used for its attributes as advertisement and bargaining point with politicians on behalf of the institution it serves. Our College, for instance, prides itself with the uniqueness of our program because there are only 19 of such programs in the country today and no one else has a program like ours within a 350 miles radius.
Communication is the key to our success and to the downfall or lack of success of many programs. Now that the internet is "the way to" communicate over great distances, our department has an extensive website linked to the College's home page. If you wish to virtually visit us here is the link http://www.citytech.cuny.edu/academics/deptsites/dentallab/index.shtml
Recently the Department of Restorative Dentistry has established a site on Facebook to allow students, alumni and those interested in our program to find information, to communicate and to keep in touch. These social networking activities are a direct result of the annual assessment studies, which determine where students have searched to locate NYCCT, the department of Restorative Dentistry and the dental laboratory profession. Today, the potential students no longer read a hard copy of the college catalog nor spend time at an open house when they have everything available at the palm of their hands via internet search engines. Social networking provides its own set of advantages such us locating lost friends from college, communicating, developing professional and business relations, as well as to simply keeping in touch with each other and helping those who are new and are looking for answers to various questions about our profession. Since the site is available to the public, it may also help to create public awareness for those who don't know much about dental laboratory technology, but wish to find out more.
From humble beginnings over 4,000 years ago to the age of high tech dental restorations, many things have changed yet many also remained the same. As we strive to stay current and prosperous in today's ever changing world, we cannot forget about the beginnings of our profession, people that shaped us along the way, and the basics we all have to learn first in order to progress to a higher level of understanding. Similarly, in the world of materialism and attention to self-being, in order to make a positive change, we should not forget about the importance of volunteerism, contribution and giving back to our families, neighborhoods and professions. There is still plenty of work to be done in order to keep us viable and essential. The future of our education and occupation is now and it lies within us as much as it does in the future leaders of our profession.
The authors would like to dedicate special thanks to the following:
- Enthusiastic students and dedicated faculty of all Dental Laboratory Technology Programs in the country and in the world
- DLT speakers, lab owners and lab technicians, dentists and representatives of various dental companies who dedicate their time, wealth and lives to elevating our profession to higher levels
- Mr. Arthur Wilde, founder and director of the Dental Congress and publisher of LIDLA newsletter
- Mr. Vincent Alleluia, Director of ASMDT, NYU
- Mr. Peter Pizzi, owner of Pizzi Dental Studio, Staten Island, NY
- Mr. Richard Pavlak, owner of Porcelain Plus Dental Systems Inc., NJ
- Dr. Burney Croll, Dr. Leonard Kobren, Dr. Daniel S. Budasoff, Dr. Vincent Celenza
- Dr. Stephen Soiffer, Special Assistant to the President of NYCCT, CUNY
- Dr. Martin Garfinkle, faculty, NYCCT, CUNY
- NADL, NBC, NGS, DLANY, LIDLA, ASMDT, Commission on Dental Accreditation of ADA
- Publications such as Lab Management Today (LMT) and Inside Dental Technology (IDT)
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